PART TWO: IMPOSITION OF TAX

CHAPTER ONE: SOURCE

Sources of income

2. Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, income tax shall be payable for each tax year, at the rates specified below, on the income of a person resident in Israel, which was produced or which accrued in Israel or abroad and on the income of a foreign resident which was produced or which accrued in Israel from the following sources:

Business and vocation

(1) wages or profits from any business or vocation exercised for any length of time, or from any incidental transaction or deal of a commercial character;

Employment

(2) (a) wages or profits from employment; any benefit or allowance given to an employee by his employer; payments made to employees to cover their expenses, including payments for maintaining a vehicle or telephone, travel abroad or the acquisition of professional literature or of clothing, but exclusive of aforesaid payments which for the employee are deductible as expenses; the value of the use of a vehicle or of a mobile radio-telephone placed at an employee's disposal; all whether paid in cash or in kind, whether given to the employee directly or indirectly or given to another for his benefit;

(b) the Minister of Finance shall, with approval by the Knesset Finance Committee, determine the value of the use of a vehicle or of a mobile radio-telephone placed at the employee's disposal as aforesaid;

(3) Repealed

Dividends, interest and linkage differentials

(4) dividends, including dividends paid out of a company's capital gains, and interest, linkage differentials or discounts;

Benefits

(5) pension, usufruct or annuity;

House property and land

(6) rents, royalties, keymoney, premiums and other profits derived from house property, land or industrial buildings; if a person built a house property and let it and received keymoney or a premium for the letting, and if after he let it he sold that house property directly or indirectly to another, under an agreement made when or before the property was let, then the purchaser shall be deemed to have received keymoney or a premium of the same amount on the date of the purchase; if the purchase is made within one year after the letting, that shall be prima facie evidence that there was an aforesaid agreement;

Other assets

(7) gains or profits derived from any asset other than house property, land or industrial buildings;

Agriculture

(8) gains or profits derived from agriculture, land cultivation, afforestation or crops, including the value of any produce received in consideration of the use of capital, assets, seed or domesticated animals, for purpose of the sources of income said in this paragraph, and including a share of profits received in respect of the aforesaid use;

Patent and copyright

(9) consideration received for the sale of a patent or design by the inventor, or for the sale of a copyright by the author, if the invention was made or the work produced not within the scope of the inventor's or author's ordinary occupation;

Other sources

(10) gains and profits from any other source not included in paragraphs (1) to (9), but not explicitly excluded from them and no exemption having been granted on them in this Ordinance or in any other statute.

Gains or profit from gambling, lotteries or prizes

2A. (a) Gains or profits of an Israel resident person, produced or accrued in Israel or abroad, as well as gains or profits of a foreign resident person, produced or accrued in Israel, the source of which is gambling, lotteries or prize winning activity, shall be taken into account in determining his profits or income and for the purposes of this Ordinance they shall be deemed income, except in respect of the set-off of losses.

(b) The provisions of subsection (a) shall not apply to each of the following:

(1) gains or profit, which under this Ordinance constitute income from some other source;

(2) gains or profits from prizes given within a personal framework;

(3) gains or profits from lotteries or prizes designated by the Minister of Finance with approval by the Knesset Finance Committee.

Other income

3. (a) An amount received by a person under insurance against loss of profits or under insurance against the loss of working capacity shall be taken into account in determining his profits or income; for this purpose:

"insurance against loss of working capacity" insurance against injury to the working capacity, against a loss of earnings or against a loss of profits due to disease, invalidity or accident, all irrespective of whether the money under the insurance was paid all at once or in periodic payments, whether it was paid by a benefit fund or by somebody else.

(b) (1) If a debt or part of a debt was waived for a person in a certain tax year, and if that debt arose out of an expenditure deductible in 7 determining his chargeable income, then the debt shall be deemed part of his income in that year.

(2) If a person received a loan and, had he been paid a grant instead, the grant would have been income, and if the lender gave him a grant before the loan is repaid or within one year after the day of its repayment, then the grant shall, up to the amount of the loan, be deemed part of the recipient's income in the tax year in which it was given; for this purpose, the remission of a loan shall be treated like giving a grant.

(3) (a) If a person's debt or a part of his debt was remitted or written off in a certain tax year, and if that debt stems from sums he received for the production of his income from any business or vocation, or if he was given a grant for the production of his income as aforesaid, and if that person is not liable to tax on it under section 2 or under paragraphs (1) or (2) of this subsection and if the provisions of sections 20A and 21(b) also do not apply to it, then the debt shall be deemed income in the year in which it was remitted or written off, and the grant as income in the year in which it was given, and on them that person shall be liable to tax at a rate of not more than 50%.

(b) On application by a person who had income said in subparagraph (a), that income shall for purposes of section 28(b) be deemed business income.

(c) Tax under subparagraph (a) shall, for purposes of section 92(a), be deemed tax on a capital gain.

(4) The provisions of paragraphs (2) and (3) shall not apply to a waived or written off grant or loan, which was given by the State, the Keren Kayemet le-Israel, the Keren Hayessod United Israel Appeal, the Jewish Agency for Israel, the World Zionist Organization or the Rural and Suburban Settlement Company Ltd. (RASSCO) to a cooperative society classified by the Registrar of Cooperative Societies as an agricultural society or to a member of a said society; however, if the society or the member suffered a loss as said in section 28, then the amount of that loss shall be reduced by the amount of the grant or of the loan that was waived or written off.

(5) For purposes of this subsection, a person whose debt has been waived includes a person who treats a debt owed by him as if it had been waived or written off.

(c) (1) If a person received amounts from the redemption of redeemable shares issued by a company free of charge, or if a person received from the redemption of redeemable shares amounts in excess of the amount he paid for them to the company (in this section: the amount of income) except for the redemption of shares in a cooperative society upon the resignation or death of a member or upon the winding up of the society and except for the amounts from the redemption of shares that were allocated to an employee or to a service provider within their meaning in section 3(i) then he shall be liable to tax at the rate of 35% on the part of the amount up to the determining date, even if he is exempt of tax or if the tax rate to which he is liable is less than 35%, and on the balance of the amount of income at the rate of 20%, but if the individual is a substantive shareholder, as defined in section 88 8 at the rate of 25%, even if he is exempt of tax or if the tax rate to which he is liable is less than the said rate; for the purposes of this section

"the part of the amount of income up to the determining date" the part of the amount of income, the ratio of which to the total amount of income is as is the ratio of the period from the date of issue of the share until the determining date, to the period from the date of issue of the share until the day of its redemption;

"balance of the amount of income" the amount obtained by subtracting the part of the amount of income until the determining date from the amount of income;

"determining date" as defined in section 88;

(2) the paying company shall deduct the tax when it pays the amounts said in paragraph (1) and pay it to the Assessing Officer within one week after the day of payment, accompanied by a report;

(3) the amounts said in paragraph (1), which were paid by the company, shall not be deductible under sections 17, 127 and 128;

(4) liability under paragraph (1) or (2) shall not apply to amounts a foreign resident received in addition to the amounts paid by him to the company for shares, in consequence of a change in the official exchange rate.

(d) (1) Amounts paid to an employer by a benefit fund, within its meaning in section 47, including interest, linkage differentials and other profits that stem from the employer's payments to the fund, shall be taken into account in the determination of his income; for this purpose: "amounts paid to an employer" include amounts which the employer treated as if they had been received from the benefit fund and were redeposited in it, and he claimed their deduction under section 17(5);

(2) the Minister of Finance may, with approval by the Knesset Finance Committee, make rules on exemption from tax of amounts transferred from one benefit fund to another, or of amounts the designation of which was changed within the same benefit fund.

(e) Amounts paid by an employer for his employee to training funds within limits prescribed in a collective agreement, within its meaning in the Collective Agreements Law 5717-1957 (hereafter: collective agreement), and in respect of an employee to whom no collective agreement applies within limits set in a collective agreement applicable to employees whose profession, seniority and working conditions are similar, but no more than 8.4% of the determining salary in respect of a teaching employee, and no more than 7.5% of the determining salary in respect of any other employee, shall be deemed the employee's work income when he receives them, but amounts paid by an employer above the aforesaid limits shall be deemed the employee's work income when they are paid to the fund; for this purpose:

"determining salary" work income, exclusive of payments to the employee to cover his expenses, overtime pay and payments for special efforts or for a certain event but not more than double the amount that is the ceiling for the payment of the cost-of-living bonus, as determined from time to time by agreement between the Coordinating Office of the Economic Organizations and the General Federation of Labor in Israel;

(in tax years 1999 to 2004 the said double amount was NS 15,400; from March 2004: NS 15,712 Tr.)

"teaching employee" a member of one of the following training funds: 9

(a) Keren Hishtalmut Lemorim Vegananot Ltd.;

(b) Keren Hishtalmut Lemorim Alyessodiim, Morei Seminarim Umefakchim Ltd.

(c) Keren Hishtalmut Lemorim Alyessodiim Ltd.

(e1) Repealed**

(e2) Amounts received by an individual from a training fund for the self employed, as defined in section 17(5a), including interest, linkage differentials and other profits, and exclusive of amounts which he deposited and which were not deductible under section 17(5a), shall be deemed that individual's income or profit from business or occupation when he received them; however, the amounts of interest, linkage differentials and other profits received from the training fund on the dates designated in section 9(16b) shall be deemed income from interest, as said in section 2(4).

(e3) (1) Amounts which all employers of an employee paid for him to savings benefit funds and to pension benefit funds on account of the employer's benefit component and which exceed the rate for deposit, multiplied by the employee's salary or by the ceiling amount, whichever is less, shall be deemed work income of the employee when they were paid to the benefit funds; amounts paid as aforesaid to benefit funds, which do not exceed the rate for deposit, multiplied as aforesaid, shall be deemed the employee's work income when he receives them;

(2) in this subsection

"average wage in the economy" the average wage calculated for the purpose of benefits and insurance contributions under section 2(b) of the National Insurance Law [Consolidated Version] 5755-1995, as the National Insurance Institute publishes them;

"the rate for deposit" the rate set under section 22 of the Control of Benefit Funds Law for deposit on account of the employer's benefit component, or the percentage of the employee's salary which the employer deposited in a benefit fund on account of the employer's benefit component, whichever is less;

"employer's benefit component" within its meaning in section 21 of the Control of Benefit Funds Law;

"salary" within its meaning under section 22 of the Control of Benefit Funds Law, in respect of which the employer paid to a benefit fund;

"ceiling amount" one of the following, as the case may be:

(1) if amounts for the employee were paid only to pension benefit funds an amount equal to four times the average wage in the economy per month;

(2) if amounts for the employee were paid only to savings benefit funds one twelfth of the ceiling of entitling income;

(3) if amounts for the employee were paid to pension benefit funds and also to savings benefit funds

(a) in respect of the amounts paid to pension benefit funds the amount said in paragraph (1);

(b) in respect of the amounts paid to savings benefit funds the amount said in paragraph (1), less the salary in respect of which the amounts were paid to pension benefit funds, on condition that it does not exceed the amount said in paragraph (2); 10

"ceiling of entitling income" the amount stated in paragraph (1) of the definition of "entitling income" in section 47, as the case may be.

(e4) (1) Profits an individual received from a benefit fund, which he was entitled to receive under the provisions of section 23 of the Control of Benefit Funds Law, and also interest and other profits which he received from a training fund at the times designated in section 9(16a) or (16b), as the case may be, shall be deemed interest income; however, profits he received as aforesaid as an amount of linkage differentials calculated on payments paid to the benefit fund or to the training fund shall be deemed income from linkage differentials.

(2) repealed

(e5) Profits received by an individual from the savings program in a life insurance policy shall be deemed income from interest; but aforesaid profits received as an amount of linkage differentials calculated on the payments paid to the savings program shall be deemed income from linkage differentials.

(e6) Income from partial linkage differentials shall be deemed interest income; in this subsection, "partial linkage differentials" as defined in section 9(13)(1), but for this purpose the index shall be the Consumer Price Index, a foreign currency exchange rate, including exchange rate differentials, or any other index ;

(f) If the occupation of a person ceased in a particular tax year and his income is determined by assessment on a cash basis, then all the amounts which, due to the determination of income on a cash basis, were not charged with tax in the hands of that person before the cessation, shall be deemed income of the person entitled to them at the time of their receipt; for this purpose: "cessation of occupation" includes a change of occupation or death; however, aforesaid amounts which are included in the estate of that person shall, for purposes of estate duty under the Estate Duty Law 5709-1949, be reduced by the amount of tax due on them under section 125A.

(g) If, during the tax year, a body of persons was a public institution, within its meaning in section 9(2), or if it did not operate for profit or all its income was exempt of tax, or if in its respect legislation determined that for the purpose of tax payment it be treated like the State, then it shall be liable to tax at the rate of 90% on the amounts specified below, without any right to exemption, deduction or set off whatsoever:

(1) amounts expended for purposes specified in regulations under section 31, which under those regulations are not deductible, or which exceed the deductible amounts;

(2) amounts it expended, which are not deductible under section 32(11);

(3) amounts it paid to a severance pay benefit fund in excess of the amounts that would have been deductible, had it not been exempt of tax.

(h) If a person received amounts as interest on debentures, and in the case of debentures that do not relate to a preferred loan, if he received interest including linkage differentials in respect of a period when the debenture was owned by another (hereafter: accrued interest), then the following provisions shall apply:

(1) if for its recipient the accrued interest does not constitute income under section 2(1), then the accrued interest shall be deemed income in respect of which there is no right to any exemption other than the exemption granted on the interest itself credit, deduction or set off; this provision shall not apply to that part of accrued interest received by a certain benefit fund that accrued in other benefit funds, as long as continuity is maintained by sale from one benefit fund to another; for this purpose: "benefit fund" a benefit fund exempt of tax under section 9(2);

(2) if the accrued interest constitutes income for its recipient under section 2(1), and in respect of a linked debenture if the following two conditions hold:

(a) the interest accrued in respect of a period of more than one year;

(b) the debenture was acquired within a year and a half before its redemption or before the date of the interest payment; and in respect of an unlinked debenture if the following two conditions hold:

(a) the interest accrued in respect of a period of more than three months;

(b) the debenture was acquired within three years before its redemption or before the date of the interest payment, then, for purposes of calculating the profit or loss of the recipient of the interest from the sale or redemption of the debenture, no account shall be taken of that part of the amount he expended on the debenture's acquisition which equals the accrued interest, less the tax due thereon. The provisions of this subsection on interest shall apply, mutatis mutandis as the case may be, also to discounts as defined in section 9(13b), which are not tax exempt under the said section.

(h1) The Minister of Finance may, with approval by the Knesset Finance Committee, determine that the provisions of subsection (h) shall not apply to certain categories of investments or to certain categories of assessees, all on conditions and with adjustments that he shall prescribe.

(i) (1) If a person realized a right received in the past to acquire an asset or service, and if at the time of the realization there was a difference between the price normally payable for that asset or service and the price that person paid, or if a person received a loan, whether given directly or indirectly to him or to another for his benefit, and if that loan was free of interest or bore a lower rate of interest than the Minister of Finance set for this purpose with approval by the Knesset Finance Committee either in general or for particular categories of loans or for loans for specific purposes then the difference shall be deemed

(a) if the right or loan was given in connection with an employee / employer relationship work income;

(b) if the right or loan was received from someone to whom its recipient provides services income within the meaning of section 2(1), unless he proves that it was not given in connection with the services he provides;

(c) if a right or loan to which subparagraphs (a) or (b) do not apply was received by a controlling member or by his relative from a company under his control income under section 2(4); for this purpose: "relative" as defined in section 76(d)(1);

"controlling member" a person who holds or is entitled to acquire, directly or indirectly, alone or together with his relative, one of these:

(1) at least 5% of the issued share capital;

(2) at least 5% of the voting power in the company;

(3) the right to receive at least 5% of the company's profits or of its assets upon winding up;

(4) the right to appoint a director. For purposes of this subsection "loan" includes any debt; "interest" includes linkage differentials.

(2) The tax on the differential in realizing an aforesaid right shall, on the assessee's application, be calculated as if that differential were income received in a number of equal annual instalments, as is the number of years from the day when the right was conferred until it was realized, but not more than six years that end with the year of the realization.

(3) The Minister of Finance may prescribe the way of calculating the differential said in paragraphs (1) and (2), and the way of calculating every datum necessary for that purpose.

(4) repealed

(j) (1) If a person extended a loan which is entered in account books kept in respect of income for which books must be kept by the double entry method, or if a body of persons gave a loan and that loan carries no interest or interest at a rate lower than the rate set for this purpose by the Minister of Finance with approval by the Knesset Finance Committee, then the interest differential shall be deemed interest under section 2(4) fir whoever gave the loan; for purposes of this subsection

"interest" includes linkage differentials;

"loan" includes any debt that is not one of the following:

(1) a debt of customers or of suppliers in respect of goods or services;

(2) a tax debt;

(3) a loan to a certain person or to a certain category of persons or for a certain purpose, extended directly or indirectly against made by the State or by the Jewish Agency for Israel and in accordance with the depositor's instructions.

(4) a loan to which subsection (i) applies;

(5) a fixed term deposit or the balance of a current account with a banking corporation that is a bank or a foreign bank licensed under the Banking (Licensing) Law 5741-1981;

(6) a deposit deposited with the State, a local authority, a Government company or a Government subsidiary and a loan extended to them;

(7) a loan extended by a financial institution in the ordinary course of business, except for a loan extended to a company under its control or to a sister company; for this purpose

"financial institution"

(a) within its meaning in the Value Added Tax Law;

(b) an institution for which interest income is income under section 2(1) and said income is its main income;

"sister company" a company that is controlled by some third company, which also controls the financial institution that extends the loan;

(8) a loan extended by a public institution, as defined in section 9(2) of the Ordinance, for a public purpose;

(9) a loan that is an international transaction, within its meaning in section 85A;

(10) a loan that is not linked to any index and does not bear any interest or any yield, extended by a body of persons under its control against a capital note that was issued for a period of at least five years, provided the loan cannot be repaid before the end of the said period, is of lower rank then other obligations and precedes only the distribution of surplus property at liquidation;

(11) capital notes and debentures issued by another body of persons, on conditions prescribed in paragraph (5) of the definition of "fixed assets" in Schedule Two of the Inflationary Adjustments Law, which on December 31, 2007, were a fixed asset for whoever extended the loan;

"control" at least 25% of the voting power or of the right to profits, whether direct or indirect, on at least one day during the tax year.

(2) The Minister of Finance may prescribe the manner in which the interest differential is to be calculated, as well as the manner of calculating every datum necessary for that purpose.

Income from an area

3A. (a) For purposes of this section "Israel citizen" each of the following:

(1) an Israel citizen, within its meaning in the Citizenship Law 5712-1952;

(2) an Israel resident;

(3) a person entitled to enter Israel under the Law of Return 5710-1950, who is a resident of an area;

(4) a body of persons, in which an Israel citizen, within its meaning in paragraphs (1) to (3), is a controlling member; for this matter "controlling member" as defined in section 32(9);

"area" each of these: Judea and Samaria and the Gaza District, including the areas included within the territorial jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority in accordance with the Agreement about the Gaza District and the Jericho Area between Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization, which was signed in Cairo on May 4, 1994;

"resident of an area" like the definition of "Israel resident" or "resident" in section 1, except that, instead of "in Israel", everywhere there read "in an area";

"profits" within their meaning for purposes of tax in the tax law applicable in the area.

(b) The income of an Israel citizen, which accrued or was generated in an area, shall be treated like income that accrued or was generated in Israel.

(b1) The income of an Israel citizen resident of an area, which accrued or was generated outside Israel and outside an area, shall be treated like the income of an Israel resident that accrued or was generated outside Israel. 14

(c) (1) If an Israel citizen belongs to a body of persons resident in an area, then part of that body's profits, proportional to that citizen's share in the rights to the body's profits, is deemed his income;

(2) for the purposes of paragraph (1), if the income of a body of persons was produced in Israel or in an area, then the income of the Israel citizen shall be treated as if it had been produced in Israel; if the income of the body was produced outside Israel and outside an area, then the income of the Israel citizen shall be treated as if it were the income of an Israel resident that was produced outside Israel;

(3) dividends received by an Israel citizen out of profits on which he paid tax under this subsection are exempt of tax.

(d) Repealed

(e) If an Israel citizen paid tax to area authorities on income said in subsection (b) or in subsection (b1), then he shall receive an Israel tax credit in the amount of the tax he paid in the area; in respect of income said in subsection (c), an Israel citizen shall receive credit for part of the tax paid by the body of persons on its profits, proportional to his share in the rights to the body's profits; tax paid as said in this section shall not be considered foreign taxes, as defined in section 199.

(f) The provisions of this Ordinance shall apply mutatis mutandis as the case may be and subject to the provisions of this section to an Israel citizen who resides or works in an area, as if he were an Israel resident.

CHAPTER TWO: LOCATION

Location of income from sale abroad

4. If a person carries on an agricultural, manufacturing or any other productive enterprise in Israel, then the following provisions shall apply to him:

(1) if that person wholesaled any product of his enterprise abroad or for delivery abroad, whether the contract was concluded in Israel or abroad, then all the profit derived from that sale shall be deemed that person's income accrued or derived in Israel, except that, if it is proven to the Assessing Officer's satisfaction that the profit was increased by anything done to that product abroad other than handling, grading, fattening, sorting, packaging or converting then that enhancement of profit shall not be deemed income accrued or derived in Israel;

(2) if a person otherwise converted, used or dealt abroad with any product of his enterprise, then the profit he might have obtained if he had wholesaled the product abroad under optimal conditions shall be deemed his income accrued or derived in Israel.

Place where income is produced

4A. (a) The place where income or profit accrued or was produced from any of the sources specified below shall be

(1) in respect of business income the place where the income yielding business activity takes place;

(2) in respect of income from business or from incidental business of a commercial character the place where the transaction or the business takes place;

(3) in respect of income from an occupation where the service is performed; 15

(4) in respect of work income where the work is performed;

(5) in respect of interest, discount and linkage differentials the payer's place of residence;

(6) in respect of rent or fees for the use of an asset where the asset is used;

(7) in respect of gain or profit, including royalties, that stem from an intangible asset the payer's place of residence;

(8) in respect of a pension, usufruct or annuity the payer's place of residence;

(9) in respect of income from agriculture the place of the asset that yields the income;

(10) in respect of dividends the seat of the body of persons that pays the dividend.

(11) in respect of gains or profit from gambling, lotteries or prize winning activity, as said in section 2A the place of residence of the person who pays the said gains or profits.

(b) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (4) and (8) of subsection (a), Israel will be deemed the place where income under the said paragraphs was produced, if the employer is one of the bodies specified in paragraph (a)(4) of the definition of "Israel resident" or "resident" in section 1, on condition that the work relationship with the said employer began when the employee was an Israel resident.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs (5), (7) and (8) of subsection (a), the following will be deemed the place where the income was produced:

(a) in Israel, also when the payer is a foreign resident if the payment constitutes an expense of the foreign resident's permanent enterprise in Israel;

(b) abroad, also when the payer is an Israel resident if the payment constitutes an expense of the Israel resident's permanent enterprise abroad.

(c) The Minister of Finance may prescribe, with approval by the Knesset Finance Committee

(1) in respect of income produced in more than one place and for which there is no other provision rules to relate production of the income to different places;

(2) the place where income was produced in certain instances, for which no other provision has been prescribed.

Special provisions on the location of income

5. Notwithstanding the provisions of any statute on the location of income, the following shall be deemed income produced in Israel:

(1) repealed

(2) repealed

(3) repealed

(4) (a) repealed

(b) the Minister of Finance may, with approval by the Knesset Finance Committee and on conditions to be prescribed by him, exempt of the tax, in whole or in part, rent paid for chartering an aircraft or vessel that operates on international routes, as well as interest and linkage differentials on loans for the acquisition thereof; this exemption may be general or for particular categories of charters or loans; 16

(5) (a) income produced by a foreign occupational company, which stems from activity in a special occupation in the amount of the income of the Israel resident shareholders;

(b) in respect of income under this paragraph and dividends distributed out of it to shareholders said in subparagraph (a), the foreign occupational company shall be treated as if its business were controlled and managed in Israel;

(c) the income, chargeable income and profits of a foreign occupational company said in subparagraph (a) shall be calculated according to the applicable tax laws; for this purpose: "applicable tax laws" one of the following, as the case may be:

(1) in respect of a foreign occupational company resident in a reciprocating state within its meaning in section 196 (in this section: reciprocating state), which files a return of its income or is assessed in the said state the tax laws in that state;

(2) in respect of a foreign occupational company to which the provisions of subparagraph (1) do not apply bookkeeping principles accepted in Israel, other than bookkeeping principles on equity gains or equity losses, and on changes in the value of securities;

(d) notwithstanding the provisions of Part Ten, Chapter Three, Article Two on credit for foreign taxes, the taxes paid by a foreign occupational company to tax authorities of a country abroad on its income said in subparagraph (a) in respect of income which under section 4A was produced abroad shall be treated like foreign taxes, as defined in section 199, and the said income shall be treated like foreign income, as defined in the same section;

(e) for the purposes of this paragraph "foreign occupational company" a foreign resident body of persons, for which all the following hold true:

(1) if it is a company, then it is a small company, within its meaning in section 76(a);

(2) 75% or more of one or more of the means of control in it are directly or indirectly held by individual Israel residents or by Israel citizen residents of an area, as defined in section 3A; for this purpose, the proportion of indirectly held means of control shall be calculated in accordance with the provisions of section 75B(a)(1)(d)(2); and for this purpose the direct or indirect rights of individuals who became Israel residents for the first time or of veteran returning residents, as said in section 14(a), shall not be taken into account before ten years have passed since they became Israel residents as aforesaid;

(3) the controlling members or their relatives, who jointly or severally, directly or indirectly hold 50% or more of one or more of the means of control, work for the company in a special occupation, either directly or through a company in which they directly or indirectly hold means of control to the extent of at least 50%;

(4) most of the income or of the profits of the company during the tax year, other than equity profits and losses and changes in the value of securities, stem from the special 17 occupation;

"special occupation" an occupation or profession designated by the Minister of Finance with approval by the Knesset Finance Committee;

"income of the Israel resident shareholders" the chargeable income of a foreign occupational company derived from activity in a special occupation, multiplied by the proportion of the direct or indirect entitlement of shareholders who are Israel residents or Israel citizen residents of an area, as defined in section 3A, to the company's profits; and for this purpose the share in the direct or indirect rights of individuals who became Israel residents for the first time or of veteran returning residents, as said in section 14(a), shall

not be taken into account before ten years have passed since they became Israel residents as aforesaid;

"means of control", "controlling member" and "relative" as defined in section 75B.

CHAPTER THREE: ASSESSMENT PERIOD

Tax Year

6. Tax for each tax year shall be charged on a person's chargeable income in that year.

Special assessment period

7. (a) Notwithstanding the provision of section 6, the Director may on application by the assessees specified below prescribe that the tax for each tax year be imposed on their income during a period of twelve consecutive months that begins on a date other than January 1 (hereafter: special assessment period):

(1) a joint investment trust, within its meaning in the Joint Investment Trusts Law 5721-1961;

(2) a Government company, within its meaning in the Government Companies Law 5735-1975;

(3) a company, the shares of which are listed for trading on a Stock Exchange recognized for purposes of the Joint Investment Trusts Law 5721-1961;

(4) a company, at least 51% of whose share capital and voting power are held by a foreign resident company, the shares of which are traded on a Stock Exchange abroad, or by a company in which the rights to at least 51% of the profits are held by an aforesaid foreign resident company.

(b) In addition to the provisions of subsection (a), the Director may set a special assessment period also for an assessee who has a special relationship, direct or indirect, with a company for which a special assessment period was set under subsection (a)(2) to (4), but he shall do so only if the assessee agreed.

(c) When the Director has set a special assessment period for an assessee under subsections (a) or (b), then tax shall be imposed for each said period subject to all the adjustments that the Director deems just and reasonable.

(d) The Director may make the setting of a special assessment period under 18 this section conditional, and he may refrain from setting a special assessment period for a company said in subsection (a)(2) to (4), if no special assessment period was set under subsection (b) for the assessee with whom it has, directly or indirectly, a special relationship.

(e) When the Director has set a special assessment period, he may cancel his decision, whether or not on the assessee's application, if he finds reasonable cause for doing so, and for purposes of that cancellation he may prescribe any adjustment he deems just and reasonable; such a cancellation, made not on the assessee's application, shall go into effect at the end of the special assessment period during which it was made.

Apportionment of income over more than one year

8. (a) The Director may permit keymoney or a premium under section 2(6), which is a participation in the cost of construction, or a similar payment to be apportioned as income over the entire period of the rental contract or over any other period which the Director may designate.

(b) The Director may permit income from the sale of a patent or design by the inventor, or from the sale of a copyright by the author, to be apportioned as income over a period to be prescribed by the Director; this provision shall not apply to income under section 2(9).

(c) On application by an assessee or his heirs, the following types of income shall be deemed, for purposes of tax computation, to have been received as said here:

(1) wage differentials in the years to which they refer, but not during more than six tax years up to the year in which they were received;

(2) pay in lieu of vacation received by an employee in equal annual installments over a period of not more than six tax years that ends in the year in which they were received, but not more than the number of years of his employment;

(3) income from personal exertion, as said in paragraphs (5) or (6) of the definition of that term in section 1 in equal annual installments in the work years for which the grant is paid or in the period in which the right to the pension was created, as the case may be, but over no more than six tax years up to the tax year in which the grant was received or the pension capitalized; however, the Director may, if requested, permit such apportionment over a different period, including years to come, under conditions which he may determine, including the payment of an advance.

(d) If the Director permitted income to be apportioned under this section or under section 9A(d) and the assessee dies, or the assessed company begins to be wound up before the end of the period set by the Director, then any income which under the apportionment belongs to years subsequent to that tax year shall be added to the assessee's income in the tax year in which he died, or to the income of the company in the tax year in which it began to be wound up; however, on application by the assessee's heirs, the administrator of his estate or the executor of his will, the whole income shall be reapportioned over a period of years ending with the tax year in which the assessee died, or, on application by the assessee's heirs, all the income which under the apportionment relates to years subsequent to that tax year, shall be deemed the heirs' income in those years, in proportion to their respective shares in the assessee's estate, and that after they have provided collateral to the Director's satisfaction for payment of the tax which will be due from them under this calculation; but if the assessee paid the advance under 19 subsection (c)(3) or section 9A(d), or if tax was withheld at the source under section 164 then the said advance paid or the said tax withheld at the source in respect of years after the death shall be deemed the amount of tax due.

Division of income from work, the performance of which takes longer

than one year

8A. (a) In this section

"extended work" work, the performance of which takes longer than one year, including construction work on a building by a person who performs the work at the order of another, and exclusive of the construction of a building by its owner;

"income from extended work" income from extended work which is income under section 2(1), either from performance or from sale.

(b) If an assessee engages in extended work, he shall report his income from it in the following manner:

(1) in the tax year in which he completed at least 25% of the monetary volume of the work, as calculated for that year, or of the quantitative volume of the work, whichever he chooses, he shall report on the estimated income earned by him from the part of the work he has performed, and in every tax year thereafter he shall report on the estimated income earned by him in accordance with the part of the work he performed in that year, calculated on the basis which he chose when he first calculated the volume of work completed; in the tax year in which he completed the work he shall report on the business results in their entirety, deducting income which he reported in previous years;

(2) a loss from extended work shall be taken into account for purposes of determining chargeable income during the tax years before the tax year in which the work was completed, only after the assessee completed at least 50% of the monetary volume of the work, as calculated for the year in which he claimed the set-off of the loss, or at least 50% of the quantitative volume of the work;

(3) if subparagraphs (1) or (2) apply to an assessee, then he shall append to his return under section 131 a return, certified by an auditor, as defined in the Auditors' Law 5715-1955, specifying the manner of determining the income or the loss, as the case may be, and the manner in which the volume of accomplished work was calculated.

(c) (1) In this subsection

"building" a building built by its owner, the construction of which takes longer than one year;

"building fit for use" a building or part thereof, which has been connected to the electricity grid, or a building in respect of which the conditions for the receipt of a building completion certificate under the Planning and Building Law 5725-1965 (hereafter: Planning Law) have been met;

"income from a building" income from the sale of the building, which is income under section 2(1).

(2) The following provisions shall apply to an assessee who has income from a building:

(a) In the first tax year in which the building was fit for use the assessee shall report all the income he had from the building until that tax year and in that tax year, and in every 20 tax year thereafter he shall report all the income he had from the building in that tax year;

(b) for the purpose of determining the assessee's chargeable income from the sale of part of a building that is fit for use, the proportional part of the total cost of the building shall be taken into account, as is the proportion of the area sold in that tax year to the area of the entire building, as specified in the building license issued under the Planning Law, but for this purpose sold parking spaces shall not be included in the sold area;

(c) the loss from a building shall not be taken into account for the determination of chargeable income in the tax years that preceded the tax year in which the building became fit for use.

Income under Section 2(6) or (7)

8B. Income under section 2(6) or (7) shall be included in the assessee's chargeable income in the year in which he actually received it, even if it constitutes deferred income, and expenses incurred in subsequent tax years in the production of the income under the said provisions shall be deductible from any source in the year in which they were incurred, but if they cannot be deducted in the year in which they were incurred, provided that if the expenses cannot be deducted in the tax year in which they were incurred - they may be deducted in the year in which the income was received, and the assessment for the said year shall be deemed to have been amended accordingly; however, in consideration thereof there shall be no obligation to pay interest and linkage differentials under section 159A.

Date on which income from exchange rate differentials is charged

8C. A person's income from exchange rate differentials shall be deemed income in the year in which it accrued, even when returns are filed on a cash basis.